Breast Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumors, which do not spread. They are localized and never spread from one part of the body to any other.
Cancer can be classified into two categories:
Cancerous (malignant) . those who are not localized or spread from one part to another.
Non-Cancerous (benign) . those who are localized and never transfer from one part to another.
Almost all parts of body cancer can prevail. Any unwanted growth of a cell known as cancer so here we are concerned to discuss breast cancer.
Breast cancer the abnormal growth of the cells lining the breast lobules or ducts. These cells grow irrepressibly and have the potential to spread to other parts of the body. Both men and women can develop breast cancer, although it is uncommon in men, As only 1% reports in men.
Biological and related cause of of Breast cancer
Biological cause. Main is DNA suspect may receive this issue in his/her genes although its highlight’s after. Well its long debate how it activates and its signs and symptoms shown and then suspects go for treatment and most of the time it is declared its last stage and the only treatment is surgery. One of main cause is inheritance at the time of birth proper screening should be taken to treat it properly
Gender its most prevalent in women as researches’ reports only 1% men have breast cancer so its female related disease
Age The risk of breast cancer also increases with age. Breast cancer is 400 times more common in women who are 50 years old as compared to those who are 20 years old. Body when one grows old then its prevalence increases
Family history as described first its inherited disease Family history: an important risk factor is having first-degree relatives (mother, sister, or daughter) with breast cancer or male relatives with prostate cancer. The risk is especially higher if both the mother and sister have had breast cancers, if the cancers in first-degree relatives occurred early in life (before age 50), or if the cancers in these relatives were found in both breasts. Having a male relative with breast cancer and having both relatives with breast and ovarian cancers also increase a woman’s risk of developing breast cancer. Families with multiple members with other cancers may have a genetic defect leading to a higher risk of breast cancer.
Previous breast cancer:
Women who have inherited defective BRCA1, BRCA2, p53, and other DNA repair genes have an increased risk of developing breast cancer, sometimes at early ages, as discussed previously. But even in the absence of one of the known predisposing genetic defects, a strong family history may signify an increased risk because of genetic or environmental factors that are specific to that particular family. For example, increased risk in families could be due to exposure to similar environmental toxins in some cases.
Women who started their menstrual periods before age 12, those who have late menopause (after age 55), and those who had their first pregnancy after age 30, or who have never had children have a mildly increased risk of developing breast cancer (less than two times the normal risk). Early onset of menses, late arrival of menopause, and late or no pregnancies are all factors that increase a woman’s lifetime level of estrogen exposure. Some studies have suggested that breastfeeding may slightly lower a woman’s breast cancer risk, especially if a woman breastfeeds for one and a half to two years
The consumption of alcohol is associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer.
Dietary factors such as high-fat diets and alcohol consumption have also been implicated as factors that increase the risk for breast cancer. Despite rumors to the contrary, caffeine intake, antiperspirant use, bras, breast implants, miscarriages or abortions, and stress do not appear to increase the risk of breast exams. It is important to remember that 75% of women who develop breast cancer have no risk factors other than age.
Breast Cancer Prevention:
Mammograms With the use of screening mammograms, more and more breast cancers are being detected at an early and curable stage. Mammograms and breast examinations are the most important screening tests for breast cancer. Mammograms can identify many tumors that are too small to be felt by the patient; up to 90% of breast cancers can be found by mammography
Breast biopsies . sometimes may reveal abnormal, though not yet cancerous, cell changes (called atypical hyperplasia). Women with atypical hyperplasia of the breast tissue have about a four- to five-fold enhanced likelihood of developing breast cancer. Some other benign cell changes in breast tissue are also associated with a slight increase (one and a half to two times normal) in risk. These are termed hyperplasia of breast tissue without atypia, sclerosing adenosis, fibroadenoma with complex features, and solitary papilloma.
Fibroadenoma: The common benign breast tumor known as a fibroadenoma, unless it has unusual features under the microscope, does not confer an increased cancer risk.
Breast cancer risks can be additive. For example, women who have first-degree relatives with breast cancer and who also have atypical hyperplasia of the breast tissue have a much higher risk of developing breast cancer than women without these risk factors.
Radiation therapy: Women’s health related to history of radiation therapy to the chest area as treatment for another cancer (such as Hodgkin’s disease or non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma) have a significantly increased risk for breast cancer, particularly if the radiation treatment was received at a young age.
Solution /Breast Cancer treatment:
There are two important aspects in breast cancer prevention:
Symptoms of breast cancer. Screening may identify early noninvasive cancers and allow treatment before they become invasive or identify invasive cancers at an early treatable stage. But screening does not, per se, prevent cancer. Breast cancer prevention really must be understood as risk reduction. In extremely high-risk patients, such as those who have BRCA mutations, risk reduction may involve prophylactic surgical removal of the breasts and ovaries.
For the average patient, lifestyle modifications (diet, exercise, weight loss) may be easily recommended and have many other benefits. For patients who have an increased risk based on other factors, the use of hormone-blocking agents, in addition to the usual lifestyle recommendations, may also be considered.